We examine privacy-enhancing technologies based on the consistency of the business plans, technology, stated objectives, and the concept of privacy as embedded in the technologies. Three distinct trust models result from the three distinct concepts of privacy: a right of autonomy, a right to seclusion and a right to property. We use these trust models to segment the privacy market and classify the privacy-enhancing technologies. The Anonymizer and Zero Knowledge's Freedom were built as technologies to enhance autonomy, while Privada Control, iPrivacy, and Incogno SafeZone are built to provide seclusion. Microsoft's Passport is built with an assumption of privacy as a tradable property right. [

] Security, privacy, and authentication are intertwined and sometimes confused in the privacy market. We argue that the creation of new trusted third party is not an effective strategy. In the case of creating a trusted third party, autonomy-based products have been more successful than seclusion-based products, despite the wider array of services offered by seclusion services.


Camp, L. Jean, and Carlos Osorio. "Privacy-Enhancing Technologies for Internet Commerce." KSG Faculty Research Working Papers Series RWP02-033, August 2002.