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Feminist agenda-setting through transnational institutions has contributed to a shift in global norms concerning the political representation of women. By the mid-1990s, national governments around the world unanimously signed the United Nations’ Beijing Platform for Action, calling on states to aim for at least 30 per cent women in decision-making positions. This chapter will survey and assess the various strategies that have been devised to achieve this goal, ranging from electoral gender quotas to public funding initiatives to civil society training programs. The diversity of these measures points to a wide array of creative solutions, engaging a variety of actors, which might be pursued to enhance women’s political representation. The chapter also considers the emergence of new barriers, including violence against women in politics and other forms of backlash against women’s political participation. Despite evolving norms of democratic representation, such counter-strategies indicate ongoing resistance to gender equality in political office.


Krook, Mona Lena, and Pippa Norris. "Promoting gender equality in elected office." Handbook of Feminist Governance. Ed. Marian Sawer, Lee Ann Banaszak, Jacqui True, Johanna Kantola. Edward Elgar, 2023, 161-173.