HKS Authors

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Teresa and John Heinz Professor of the Practice of Environmental Policy


This year, countries will pledge to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions as part of the negotiations leading up to the UN climate change talks in Paris in December. These pledges will take on many different forms: targets as a percentage of year 1990 or 2005 emissions, percentage improvements in the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, percentage abatement versus a “no-policy” reference case, renewable power goals, energy efficiency goals, afforestation goals, and more. Understanding the comparability of the pledged mitigation efforts will play a critical role in the negotiating process. - See more at:


Aldy, Joseph, and William A. Pizer. "The Road to Paris and Beyond: Comparing Emissions Mitigation Efforts." Resources for the Future. May 13, 2015.