How can we improve academic achievement and college attainment for disadvantaged students? To address this question, education researchers typically assess the impact of various interventions on all students whose family income falls under the limit for free or reduced-price school lunch--a broad category that fails to account for the effects of ethnicity and class in combination, as well as the considerable differences in economic and cultural resources among lower-income families in the United States.
Cheng, Albert, and Paul E. Peterson. "School Choice and 'The Truly Disadvantaged': Vouchers boost college going, but not for students in greatest need." Education Next 21.3 (Summer 2021): 52-59.