There is extensive research linking leadership to organizational effectiveness. In particular transformational leadership has received a great deal of support for it being very effective in producing desirable organizational outcomes across a variety of organizational settings. Recently Hendrix, Born, & Hopkins (2015) found that the character of a leader predicted organizational effectiveness measures above and beyond that of transformational leadership. Job enrichment has also been found to be predictive of organizational effectiveness; however, no research has been found that looks at job enrichment predicting organizational effectiveness in combination with transformational leadership and character. The purpose of this research was to investigate if character and job enrichment add in the prediction of organizational effectiveness above and beyond that of leadership alone. The sample for this research consisted of 279,100 active-duty military and civilian United States Air Force personnel. Data were collected using a survey that included measures of transformational leadership, character, job enrichment, and five organizational outcomes. Results indicated character and job enrichment add to the prediction of desirable organizational outcomes above and beyond that of leadership. Therefore, this research adds support for measuring leaders’ character and job enrichment in combination with transformational leadership assessment.
Born, Dana, William H. Hendrix, and Emily Pate. "Three Pillars of Organization Excellence." The Journal of Character & Leadership Integration (Winter 2017): 45-54.