The transportation of toxic inhalant hazards (TIH), primarily chorine gas and anhydrous ammonia, is a major concern for policy makers as it represents a double dichotomy. This paper explores options to address the dichotomies. This paper draws heavily on a 2009 Harvard Kennedy School Working Paper, "Rail Transportation of Toxic Inhalation Hazards: Policy Responses to the Safety and Security Externality," by Branscomb, Fagan, Auerswald, Ellis and Barcham, which provides additional detail on this topic. The industry should begin to model the cost of risk associated with TIH shipments. The goal is to bound the cost estimate rather than calculate a point estimate. The industry has years of traffic and accident data relating to all shipments, hazardous cargos and TIH movements. The probably of a derailment of TIH with a release can be estimated using simulation modeling. Again the goal is to find a zone of likely outcomes.
Fagan, Mark. "Transportation of Toxic Inhalant Hazards: Addressing the Double Dichotomy." Journal of Transportation Law, Logistics and Policy 79.1 (2012): 59-71.