HKS Authors

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Objective: We examined the between-school psychometric properties of Tripod School Climate Index (TSCI) scores. Methods: Reliability and validity are examined using data from nearly 18,000 students and 1500 teachers. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability are examined, and generalizability-theory derived procedures are used along with longitudinal multivariate regression. Controls for school composition are included. Results: TSCI scores consistently capture 2 key dimensions of school climate - safety and relationships. However, stability over time is somewhat biased by school composition. Conclusions: The TSCI appears well-suited for organizational analyses. Scores meet key United States requirements for alternate indicators of school quality. However, controls for school composition are advisable when using the index to monitor change over time or predict important school outcomes.


Ferguson, Ronald. "The Tripod School Climate Index: Evidence of Score Reliability and Validity." Health Behavior and Policy Review 5.4 (July 2018).