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Can parties such as the Swedish Democrats, the Jobbik Movement for a Better Hungary, the UK Independence Party, and the Italian Lega Nord all be classified consistently as part of the same family? Part I of this study summarizes the conceptual framework arguing that the traditional post-war Left-Right cleavage in the electorate and party competition has faded, overlaid by divisions over authoritarian-libertarianism and populism-pluralism. Building on this, Part II discusses the pros and cons of alternative methods for gathering evidence useful to classify party positions. Part III describes how these are measured in this study, using CHES data in 2014 and 2017, and how they are mapped on a multidimensional issue space. Part IV compares European political parties on these scales –- including Authoritarian-Populist parties -- across a wide range of European countries. The conclusion in Part V draws together the main findings and considers their implications.


Norris, Pippa. "Varieties of Populist Parties." Philosophy and Social Criticism 45.9-10 (2019): 981-1012.