Hambridge, Nicholas B., Arnold M. Howitt, and David W. Giles. "What is the Impact of the NIMS Mandate?" Crisis Response 12.4 (August 2017): 84-86.

Abstract

As a consequence of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the US Homeland Security Act of 2002 mandated the creation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) to be the standard method for managing emergency response operations at all levels of government regardless of incident type, size, or complexity. In this article, Hambridge, Howitt and Giles examine how successful the diffusion of the National Incident Command System has been across the US.